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Published In: CANINE and other MAMMALS


Selfridge J., Hedderley S., Charlton S., Cunliffe C. (2016)

When it comes to back care, size really doesn’t matter. In African safari elephants, does carrying a rider - or multiple riders -impact on musculoskeletal integrity?

Oral presentation at 3rd International Veterinary Congress, London, August 2016

Published in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology. 7 (5) Proceedings of the 3rd International Veterinary Congress OMICS International

  Abstract    Poster 


  • Investigation of the effect of weight bearing on joint and limb segment angles in fore and hind limbs of the ridden elephant.
  • The presence of rider(s) influences MS angles and ROM in the limb segments and joints of elephants
  • The use of a saddle may modify the potential for musculoskeletal compromise.



Charlton S., Ellis, J., Cunliffe C. (2014)

A preliminary study to investigate the range of motion of the proximal limb joints and relationships to British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club (BVA/KC) hip score in dogs.

Oral presentations at BSAVA congress, Birmingham, April 2014; BSAS conference, Nottingham, April 2014;

Published in Advances in Animal Biosciences Vol 5 (1) 2014; BSAVA congress proceedings, 2014.




  • Hip dysplasia is one of the most common orthopaedic diseases in dogs and often show minimal clinic signs
  • Passive joint ROM demonstrates integrity of the joint without influence of muscle activity.
  • Dogs with a higher BVA/KC hip score on one side may predispose to an increased measured extension range of that hip joint and the contralateral forelimb elbow extension.